Monday, July 16, 2018

Science and She: Dr. Margaret Karembu

Science and She is an online campaign of the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) and its network of Biotechnology Information Centers which aims to empower women in science. Scientists and science communicators tell their stories and aspirations for science and the society with the hope that the stories will help bridge the gap between science and the public.



For each week, one female scientist or science communicator serves as the curator of the Science and She social media pages on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. One of the previous curators of the pages was Dr. Margaret Karembu, Director of ISAAA AfriCenter based in Nairobi, Kenya. She oversees the Africa-based Biotechnology Information Centers in East and Central Africa (Kenya), Francophone Africa (Mali/Burkina Faso), and Egypt. She also serves as the chair of the Open Forum on Agricultural Biotechnology (OFAB) Programming Committee, Kenya Chapter. Dr. Karembu holds a PhD in Environmental Science Education from Kenyatta University and has over 10 years of experience in university teaching.

Passion for Science Popularization

Dr. Karembu’s passion for science started very early in life. Having grown and lived in rural Africa most of her childhood, direct interaction with nature would start early in the morning until dusk. “The roadside grass dew provided easy wipes to our weary feet after trekking several kilometers to school barefoot. Evening routine entailed fetching firewood from nearby bushes and drawing water from a local stream on the Slopes of Mt Kenya. I would smell every flower and berry I came across though some were not that pleasant! I had no idea that this was preparing me for a quantum leap from the village to the world,” Dr. Karembu narrates.



Dr. Karembu has been known to be passionate about science and a strong believer in the power of innovations for transforming African agriculture into efficient, competitive and profitable enterprises for women, youth and small-holder families. She demonstrates this through various communication initiatives. She used to work as a science teacher at the premier Kenya Science Teachers College, a significant experience that trained her to simplify science jargon for the public. Her engagements at ISAAA also contributed to building her confidence and nurturing her skills in science communication and thus realizing her goal in life – making science better appreciated.

Women for Bioscience


By virtue of gender roles, Dr. Karembu believes that every woman is a scientist in her own right whether at professional or community level. Women are key in decision-making about food, clothing and sustaining the health of their families, and can be trusted with passing scientific information about these issues. Empowering women with skills to communicate science is thus crucial, just as it is investing in women for science. This conviction to empower women led Dr. Karembu to initiate putting up a network that aims to play a significant role in strengthening the capacity of African women to engage in biosciences and policy dialogue for sustainable livelihoods. Thus in May 2018, the African Women for Bioscience (AWfB) platform was launched.


Unblocking Biotechnology

For Dr. Karembu, being appointed by Kenya’s President to serve as Council Chair and Vice-chair of Cooperative University and the Meru University College of Science and Technology, respectively, were her most significant achievements. While serving in these positions, she realized how big the gap is between researchers and the society. She constantly emphasizes that effective science communication is also very important in strengthening institutional leadership. Thus, she recommends the establishment of a department or unit in every university to improve science communication.



“I dream of a world where those privileged with technology abundance would stop obstructing its access to those who need it most especially in Africa. A time when the naysayers would stop demonizing biotechnology and tagging those who struggle to explain. Rather, a world where people accommodate each other’s opinions and choice. I picked these victuals from Kenyatta University in Kenya where I attained all my degrees from - from undergraduate, masters to PhD. My father always encouraged us to respect the lesser and the mightier and this has helped me a lot in achieving my life’s dream,” Dr. Karembu shares.

In a video, Dr. Karembu narrates the story of millions of African women struggling daily to bring food on the table and how African researchers are working hard to also deliver products of biotechnology. “I am very proud to be helping them improve on how they deliver their messages about their research reaching out to policymakers so that we can have enabling policies that will bring technologies that will be useful for African women,” she said. Watch the entire video on Science and She's Facebook Page.

Tuesday, May 29, 2018

Science and She: Dr. Mahaletchumy Arujanan


The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) and its network of Biotechnology Information Centers launched a campaign on social media which aims to empower women in science. The campaign called Science and She, features scientists and science communicators who tell their stories and aspirations for science and the society with the hope that the stories will help bridge the gap between science and the public.

For each week, one female scientist or science communicator serves as the curator of the Science and She social media pages on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Recently, Dr. Mahaletchumy Arujanan, a science communication expert and Executive Director of the Malaysian Biotechnology Information Center, took the centerstage. 


According to Dr. Arujanan, science communication is relatively a new field and so much needs to be done in this area in the developing world. She calls on scientists to be “civic scientists” to bridge the knowledge gap between the scientific community and the society. She encouraged them to reach out to the people, engage them, make them understand and appreciate science and research.

Recognitions

Empowering others with scientific knowledge and helping them to make informed decisions gives Dr. Maha a tremendous satisfaction. Her contributions to science communication were first recognized by The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) with the awarding of the 2010 TWAS Regional Prize for Public Understanding of Science for East, SEA and the Pacific Region. Another recognition came in 2015, when Scientific American’s WorldView named her as one of the 100 most influential persons in biotech in the world. In the same year, Biotech Law Report published by Mary Ann Liebert in the USA listed Dr. Arujanan as one of the women in Biotech Law and Regulations. Malaysian Women’s Weekly also listed her as one of the “Great Women of our Time” in their December 2015 issue. 


The importance of science communication

"Communicating and engaging the public with science and biotechnology is crucial. To make informed decisions, every individual needs some basic understanding of science. And this is exactly what we do at the Malaysian Biotechnology Information Centre (MABIC)...we empower the public with scientific knowledge. Join us in our rally to support science and science-based decisions," says Dr. Arujanan. This is the reason why she loves her job as a science communicator. “It's really fulfilling to see that my job translates into science-based policies, regulations, and it helps to ensure food security, mitigate climate change, have sustainable agricultural practices, and in the alleviation of poverty…I’m a strong advocate of biotechnology. I strongly believe that if this field is deployed ethically, it can solve many of the problems that we face today," she added.

Dr. Arujanan emphasized that at present, there are several means to disseminate information on science/biotechnology and to engage the public. We do not have to solely depend on the mainstream media. While MABIC resorted to creating a print media that has been digitalized, social media offers another powerful tool as a mouthpiece for scientists and science communicators. Their monthly newspaper, The Petri Dish, is the first science newspaper in Malaysia, distributed to major universities, research institutes, hospitals, government agencies, government ministries and schools across Malaysia as well as in Indonesia. She also reaches out to the public, especially to the young minds, through her Facebook page which has over 12,000 followers as of this writing.

Women in STEM

Dr. Arujanan recognized the tremendous increase in the number of women in science careers such as scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and professionals in other STEM-related areas. According to her, this is really an achievement of progressive policies, government measures, and also the society that allowed women to pursue their dreams around the world.

“But the truth is we have not achieved equality yet with our male counterparts. While the number of girls is increasing in the universities, there is still a leaky pipe somewhere along the career path. We still do not see enough women at the pinnacle of organizations, at the decision-making positions and in the boardrooms,” she highlights.

“As a trained science communicator, I feel we have to take the onus to inspire young girls to pursue STEM education and careers. We need to be their mentors and role models. We need to share our stories, journey, accomplishments, and challenges with them. More importantly, we need to stand up for our rights so we pave a road that is with fewer obstacles for the next generation. So that, their journey becomes sweeter than ours and they could contribute much more than us,” Dr. Arujanan stressed.





Monday, March 05, 2018

5 Questions with Jennifer Thomson, Microbiologist, President of the Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World, and The World Academy of Science Fellow


Science, for the longest time, has been a male-dominated business, but studies report that women are starting to catch up. The number of women who are working in science-related fields has grown steadily in the last two decades. One of these strong women is Dr. Jennifer Thomson from South Africa’s University of Cape Town. Jennifer is one of the many successful women whose work has been celebrated around the globe. She is one of the 16 women and 10 African scientists who were elected as fellows to The World Academy of Science (TWAS) in January 2018.


Dr. Jennifer Thomson
Jennifer has been a strong advocate of promoting modern biotechnology in Africa for its potential in helping the continent overcome hunger and poverty. The first woman to head a department in the Science Faculty at the University of Cape Town, she has written a number of peer-reviewed papers and authored books about genetically modified (GM) crops. Jennifer is also a well-known speaker about GM crops and has addressed the World Economic Forum in Davos twice and the United Nations as guest of then Secretary General Kofi Annan. Her three books, Genes for Africa, Seeds for the Future, and Food for Africa are bestsellers and written with the layperson in mind.

During her election as President of the Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSD) in 2016, Jennifer referred to her new role as an extension of her lifelong passion for promoting women in science. But how did Jennifer become one of South Africa’s staunchest supporter of modern biotechnology? In this new series, we asked Jennifer five questions to get a glimpse of her advocacy.


Growing up, who was your inspiration/idol?

My inspiration was my Aunt Margaret, who was the youngest woman headmistress of a high school in South Africa. As a family, we never made any major academic decisions without first consulting her. She also knew the names and family details of all her pupils, past and present.

Jennifer at three, with her brother Rob, five.

Why did you want to be a microbiologist? 

Jennifer (middle, front row) as Hyde Park High School’s head girl in 1964, together with prefects.

I didn’t – it happened by a series of coincidences. In fact, as a zoology undergraduate I pitied microbiology majors as they seemed to spend all their time looking down microscopes, which I didn’t want to do. But when I went to Cambridge after my BSc, the zoology department was very old fashioned, so I asked the head of the genetics department if I could switch (on the basis of 1 week’s lectures in genetics). He agreed, but they worked on organisms that grew too slowly so I decided I’d better do my PhD on organisms that grew quickly. Hence I switched to bacterial genetics – and I still don’t know how to use a microscope!


How did you rise up to the greatest challenge that your job has presented to you?

My greatest challenge was being the first woman head of a department in the Science Faculty at the University of Cape Town. I was interviewed by a panel of white males (it was in 1988), many of whom didn’t want me. I showed them that I could run a department better than most of them, because, instead of the headship being rotated every 3 years, my department voted me in for 12 years.

Jennifer was the first woman to head the Laboratory for Molecular and Cell Biology
in the University of Cape Town.

As one of the major influencers in Africa, how are you unique from the others?


I am certainly not unique! I think one of the reasons I have been successful is that, early in my career, I decided not to have children. I don’t want any other woman in Africa to have to make that choice – hence my present position as President of the Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSD).


What is your vision for Africa's agricultural productivity?

The use of every modern tool that can improve both productivity and nutrient value. If that involves genetically modified crops, indigenous knowledge, artificial intelligence, better use of grey water – no matter – go for what works best. But make sure that technology serves the people, not the other way round.
Jennifer’s books on GM crops in Africa. Her research was focused on the development of maize resistant to the African endemic maize streak virus (MSV) and maize tolerant to drought.

About Jennifer Thomson (from the University of Cape Town’s website):
Jennifer Thomson has a BSc in Zoology from the University of Cape Town (UCT), an MA in Genetics from Cambridge University and a PhD in Microbiology from Rhodes University in South Africa. She was a post-doctoral fellow at Harvard Medical School. She was a lecturer, senior lecturer and Associate Professor in the Department of Genetics at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa before starting and being the Director of the Laboratory for Molecular and Cell Biology for the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. She then became Professor and Head of the Department of Microbiology at UCT, a post she held for 12 years until the Department merged with the Department of Biochemistry. She is now an Emeritus Professor of Microbiology in the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology at UCT. Her main current research interests are in the development of maize resistant to the African endemic maize streak virus and tolerant to drought. Other positions held include the Deputy Dean of Science at UCT, a former chair and member of the South African Genetic Engineering Committee, co-founder of SA Women in Science and Engineering, Fellow of the Royal Society of South Africa and former Vice-President of the SA Academy of Science. She is a former Chair of the African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) and Vice-Chair of the board of the International Service for the Acquisition of Agribiotech Applications (ISAAA). She is President of the Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSD), a member of the Independent Science and Partnership Council (ISPC) of the CGIAR and a member of the National Advisory Council on Innovation (NACI) to the Minister of Science and Technology in South Africa.

For more about Jennifer’s research work, visit the University of Cape Town website.


5 Questions With… is a continuing series in the ISAAA Blog. A new personality will be featured every quarter, so watch out for our next feature!

Written/Compiled by Clement Dionglay, Project Associate at ISAAA Global Knowledge Center on Crop Biotechnology

Thursday, March 01, 2018

Science and She: Dr. Rhodora Romero Aldemita

The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) and its network of Biotechnology Information Centers launched a new campaign on social media which aims to empower women in science. The campaign called Science and She, features scientists and science communicators who tell their stories and aspirations for science and the society with the hope that the stories will help bridge the gap between science and the public.



For each week, one female scientist or science communicator serves as the curator of the Science and She social media pages. The first curator for the campaign is Dr. Rhodora Romero-Aldemita, Director of ISAAA Global Knowledge Center on Crop Biotechnology. Dr. Aldemita is a crop scientist with knowledge and experience accumulated over the years on agriculture-related topics such as plant pathology, plant physiology, molecular biology, and rice biochemistry. Currently, she is involved in sharing her knowledge with the public so they can have fact-based decisions regarding GM crops.

Dr. Aldemita did not expect to be a scientist, let alone one who would be recognized by the National Academy of Science and Technology, Philippines and other prestigious award-giving bodies such as the Outstanding Women in the Nation’s Service Foundation and The World Academy of Science. Her inherent love for her family and desire to improve their living conditions motivated her to study and work hard.



“In order to succeed in our field, we have to realize our potentials and limitations. We need to explore and develop these potentials and use them wisely and to the fullest. I developed my abilities through studying, training, conducting research, and publishing. Although the outputs of my rice genetic engineering work were not immediately available to help consumers and farmers at that time, I knew that they would make difference in the future, and they did!! Most importantly, we have to overcome our limitations by being resourceful and by exploring alternatives,” Dr. Aldemita says.



One of her biggest achievements was being awarded as one of the Ten Outstanding Women in the Nations Service for Excellence in the field of Science in 1998. It was the culmination that reaffirmed all the awards she has received including the Ten Outstanding Young Scientist in the Philippines, the Science Prize in Biology by the National Academy of Science and Technology, Philippines, and The World Academy of Sciences, Italy, and many other recognitions. The latest award was the recognition of her home city, San Pablo City, as an Outstanding San Pableño in the field of Agriculture. Each time she was introduced as a multi-awarded scientist, her credibility as biotech expert and spokesperson was validated.

  
“As a scientist, I was able to develop a rice transformation technology that is still being used by researchers today. As a science communicator, I am honored to help others gain knowledge and understanding about a technology that is highly beneficial to many. I have worked for years in the lab, and I am confident that biotechnology is used by scientists like me to help improve lives. Scientists work hard for their own families, as well as to help other families have bountiful harvest and food on their plates. By communicating about the benefits of biotechnology, I am hopeful that time will come when more people will appreciate the technology and acknowledge its importance. This will lead to more countries planting biotech crops, and more mouths being fed. When that time comes, all my hard work, together with the efforts of other scientists, will be worth it,” she says.


Follow Science and She on FacebookTwitter, and Instagram to join the campaign.

Wednesday, January 31, 2018

Join the Conversation on Biotech


We would like to hear from you! ISAAA is on Facebook, Twitter, and Blogger. Please like and follow our social media pages and join the discussions on biotech. Let your voice be heard!

Tuesday, January 16, 2018

Trending News on Crop Biotech in 2017


Did you know that scientists have designed rice plants that can flower on demand? How about the study on rice enriched with antioxidant resveratrol? These are just some of the interesting news on crop biotech in 2017.

We summarized the top 10 most trending Crop Biotech Update news shared on Facebook to give you a glimpse of crop biotech happenings last year. Read on and make sure you don't miss which news made it to the number one spot.

 


"Do we really wish to have a science-based society or should we let ourselves be governed by prejudices and misconceptions?" ask Roberto Defez, a molecular microbiologist at the Italian National Research Council, and Dennis Eriksson, a researcher at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. They asked this question in their article in Euractiv, which was published after the EU court ruled that prejudices on GM foods are unfounded.
  


A science exchange program was held in February 2017 between Cairo University, Egypt and Helsinki University in Finland. Prof. Naglaa Abdallah of Cairo University and director of Egyptian Biotechnology Information Center (EBIC) participated in the event.



Researchers from Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and National Center for Citrus Variety Improvement and Southwest University in China report the improvement of citrus canker resistance through CRISPR-Cas9. The researchers performed targeted editing of host disease-susceptibility gene CsLOB1 promoter in citrus, which led to mutation lines with enhanced resistance to citrus canker compared to wild types.



 Mozambique has planted the first field trial of genetically modified (GM) maize in the Chokwe District of Gaza Province as part of the Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA) program. The trial will test the tolerance of GM maize to drought and insect pests. 

 


Scientists from France and the U.K. reviewed 52 articles and found that most of the applications of CRISPR in crops were to improve the yield performance of the crops, as well as to improve the nutrient content (biofortification) and the tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. 



A group of researchers from ETH Zürich genetically modified rice that not only has increased levels of the micronutrients iron and zinc in the grains, but also produces beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A. The new multi-nutrient rice lines are still being tested in the greenhouse and analyzed for their micronutrient content.




A study conducted by researchers from the National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute in India demonstrated that genome editing through CRISPR-Cas9 can be applied for banana genome modification.They tested this concept by performing mutation in genes involved in an enzyme activity. The decrease in chlorophyll contents exhibited by mutant plants implies that the function of the genes were disrupted.


 
Dow AgroSciences LLC researchers evaluated the impact of stacking genetically modified  events on maize grain on biochemical composition and compared it with the impact caused by generating non-GM hybrids. The composition of GM breeding stacks was found to be more similar to the composition of their iso-hybrids than to the composition of non-GM hybrids to their iso-hybrids. Hence, non-GM breeding is more capable of influenced crop composition than transgenesis or stacking of GM events.




Incheon National University scientists developed resveratrol-enriched rice with herbicide resistance (RR) and analyzed the metabolic changes that occurred. Analyses revealed that there were no significant differences in the biochemical structures of RR compared with the non-RR plants. The results also showed that herbicide treatment did not affect the chemical composition of RR.



University of Tokyo researchers developed genetically engineered rice that does not flower until it comes in contact with a specific fungicide. The results of the study can lead to the development of crops that can grow in different climate types and facilitate breeding for different agronomical characteristics.

Never miss the latest news on agri-biotechnology in 2018. Get FREE Crop Biotech Update subscription now! Go to www.isaaa.org/subscribe.

Written by Kristine Grace N. Tome, Program Associate at ISAAA.

Tuesday, January 09, 2018

How Filipino News Writers Define Biotechnology

Science news writers usually define technical terms to make the readers understand the content of their articles. The choice of words, as well as definition of concepts, often has influence on how audiences respond to biotech stories.



The study Seventeen Years of Media Reportage of Modern Biotechnology in the Philippines, published in the April 2017 issue of the Philippine Journal of Crop Science, found that Filipino news writers define modern biotechnology differently, but most of them do not define it at all.

The study analyzed articles on modern crop biotechnology released from 2000 to 2016 in major Philippine newspapers including Manila BulletinPhilippine StarPhilippine Daily Inquirer and Business Mirror (2010-2016 only).

The first set of data covering 2000-2009 (10 years) showed that out of the 1,355 articles published during that time period, only 17% or 231 articles contain explanations of the term biotechnology. Of this percentage, most of the definitions were simplified (155 articles), and a few (76 articles) used scientific definitions.

For the second period of analysis covering 2010-2016, only 30 (1%) of the 864 articles contained definitions of biotechnology. The decline in the percentage of articles containing definitions of biotechnology may imply that the writers assume that the readers already understand the concept. Of the 30 articles, 47% used popularized definitions, with simplified terms to explain the technology. Another 47% mentioned technical terms such as recombinant DNA technology and gene splicing. The remaining 6% had definitions with negative implications such as “dangerous”, “creating disorders such as autoimmune disease, allergies, asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, infertility, and organ damage.”




Based on the results of the study, the low number of articles with definitions of biotechnology may indicate that the writers assume that biotechnology is already a general term that do not need much explanation to be grasped by the public. However, it is still recommended that such scientific terms be defined using simple terms to ensure public understanding of biotechnology.

Written by Kristine Grace N. Tome, Program Associate at ISAAA.  

Sources: 
 
Tome, Kristine Grace N., Mariechel J. Navarro, Sophia M. Mercado, and Maria Monina Cecilia A. Villena. 2017. Seventeen Years of Media Reportage of Modern Biotechnology in the Philippines. Philippine Journal of Crop Science 42(1): 26-35.


ISAAA. 2017. From Fear to Facts: 17 Years of Agri-biotech Reporting in the Philippines (2000-2016). http://isaaa.org/resources/publications/fromfeartofacts/download/From_Fear_to_Facts.pdf.